Gestational diabetes

In pregnancy, pregnant women should pay special attention to the phenomenon of pregnancy diabetes.

Gestational diabetes is a condition in women hyperglycemia occurs only during pregnancy and return to normal blood sugar levels six weeks after birth. Gestational diabetes not only affects the health of the mother but also could threaten the health of the fetus.

 Gestational diabetes

Causes and risk factors

During pregnancy, the placenta development production some hormones decrease insulin action in tissues, to a certain extent can affect the growth and development of the fetus. Gestational diabetes develops after the 20th week of pregnancy and returns to normal blood sugar levels six weeks after birth.
Some women at high risk, such as pregnant are older than age 25, who had a history of type 2 diabetes, family (parents, siblings) with diabetes type 2. Or those in the pregnancy before pregnancy diabetes or a history of stillbirth unexplained. People who are overweight and obese are at risk for gestational diabetes.

 Gestational diabetes

The complications of gestational diabetes

For pregnant women, gestational diabetes increases the risk of preeclampsia, a disorder characterized by high blood pressure and protein in the urine appear after the 20th week of pregnancy. If not treated, preeclampsia can lead to unforeseen complications, even life-threatening to both the mother and fetus. Pregnant women with gestational diabetes prevalence higher urinary tract in pregnant women are not sick.
As for the fetus, gestational diabetes if not managed well can lead to uncontrolled blood sugar levels of the fetus, the fetus at risk of overgrowth is one of the causes of dystocia. But for those cases in some women with diabetes accompanied by perennial vascular complications are the often underdeveloped fetus in the uterus, due to poor blood flow in the uterus nourish the placenta, or too tight glycemic control as well as the undeveloped fetus.

 Gestational diabetes 1

Infants of mothers who do not get good glycemic control had the higher risk of acute respiratory failure due to underdeveloped lungs completely, leading to more severe disease and high mortality rates. The birth defects: spina bifida, hydrocephalus, renal atrophy, cystic kidneys, ventricular septal, atrial septal … The main cause of death was due to fetal birth defects, respiratory distress or infection in pregnant women promoted religious endeavor. Some fetal deaths were related to pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, jute is a common complication in women with gestational diabetes. Newborns can hypoglycemia within the first 48 hours after birth, due to hyperinsulinemia persists. There’s also a number of other manifestations such neonatal hypocalcemia, hyperbilirubinemia (jaundice) …

 Gestational diabetes 4So pregnant women gestational diabetes should be treated aggressively, good blood sugar control during pregnancy. Routine antenatal care needs to be able to early detection of defects, risks affecting the development of pregnancy, planning to intervene promptly and effectively.

Dr. Nguyen Thi Van

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